Plagiocephaly Information for Providers
Boston Orthotics & Prosthetics has extensive experience in the management of deformational plagiocephaly through our clinical network, and is bringing progressive designs and techniques forward to advance the treatment options for this pediatric population.
Types of Cranial Asymmetry
- Plagiocephaly: A flattening on one side of the back of the head with a bulging in the forehead of the same side as the flattening
- Brachycephaly: A symmetrical flattening on the back of the head that causes the head to appear wide above the ears and short from front to back. From a side view, the back of the head appears taller than the front
- Asymmetric Brachycephaly: A combination of plagiocephaly and brachycephaly that creates a head shape with a flattened back and bulging forehead on the same side, as well as a wide appearance above the ears and a side view with the back of the head seeming taller than the front.
- Scaphocephaly: A head shape that is long from front to back and very narrow from side to side
Causes of Plagiocephaly
While there are many ways infants can develop cranial asymmetries, the common denominator is that growth is restricted in a fixed area of the head.
Some Causes of Cranial Asymmetry
- Position in the womb
- Developmental delays
- Poor muscle tone
- Spine abnormalities
- Back sleeping
- Torticollis: a tightness of the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle on one side of the head that causes the child to look toward the contralateral shoulder, causing the contralateral side to become deformed
Risk Factors for Developing Plagiocephaly
- Multiple births
- Firstborn children
- Breech births
- Premature births
- Male infants
- Long labors
- Infants who spend time in a neo-natal intensive care unit (NICU)
In cases that are identified very early on or when the child is predisposed to have positional cranial flattening (premature birth, multiple birth, in NICU for a period of time at/after birth), Boston Orthotics & Prosthetics advocates repositioning techniques. When repositioning is unsuccessful, Boston O&P offers three excellent and effective treatment options:
The Plagio Cradle™::: a sleep surface for infants designed to prevent cranial deformity.
The Cuddle Cup: is a smaller version of the Plagio Cradle, which is intended exclusively for use for babies in hospital Neo-natal Intensive Care Units.
The Boston Band: a lightweight, plastic and foam orthosis made from a cast impression or a 3D scan of the infant’s head.
Concerns for Pediatricians
Many of our patient referrals come from specialists such as cranio-facial surgeons, but a growing number of our patient referrals come directly from pediatricians. This is a widely accepted practice because in the vast majority of cases, the deformation is truly positional and there are no other underlying concerns.
Why then have some pediatricians been reluctant to use this treatment? Well, some forms of synostosis (premature closure of the cranial sutures) can appearance to be plagiocephaly, such as:
Unilateral coronal syntosis:
In this example. the left coronal suture is prematurely fused and therefore no more growth can occur from this suture line. This shows a slightly posterior plagiocephaly on the left side however in true positional plagiocephaly you would also see a left anterior bossing (pushing forward all on the same side). In this case, the anterior bossing in only on the child's right side. This is fairly obvious and indicates something other than positional deformity. Reports vary, but this is thought to be seen in only one in 3,500 live births.
Unilateral lambdoidal synostosis
In this example, the right lambdoidal suture prematurely fuses. You see the posterior flattening that would seem to indicate right plagiocephaly, however upon further review you notice a couple things conflicting with that diagnosis:
- The anterior bossing is on the forehead while the right is actually sunken back.
- The right ear may actually be shifted posteriorly also. Remember, in true positional plagiocephaly, that forward shift is all on the same side. The means the right ear and right forehead would be shifted forward if it was positional plagiocephaly. Again, reports vary, but this configuration is thought to occur in only one in 100,000 live births.
Sagittal synostosis and metopic synostosis
Sagittal synostosis (shown) and metopic synostosis are also potential forms of synostosis, however obviously do not in any way mimic deformational plagiocephaly. They are the most common forms of prematurely closed cranial sutures, occurring in one in 2,000 live births and one in 2,500-3,500 live births respectively.
Please understand that we are in no way discouraging use of specialists, however we are saying that in many cases, a pediatrician with proper training can make the diagnosis of positional cranial deformity versus synostosis and refer the patient directly to an orthotist if a cranial remolding orthosis is warranted. This process obviously saves time and money. If there is any doubt whatsoever or co-morbidities present, please contact a specialist immediately.
Publications & Articles
- Comparison of Helmet Therapy and Counter Positioning for Deformational Plagiocephaly, Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2013
- Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of Patients With Positional Plagiocephaly: The Role of Physical Therapy, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, 2016
- Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Role of Cranial Molding Orthosis (Helmet) Therapy for Patients With Positional Plagiocephaly, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, 2016
- Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guideline on the Management of Patients With Positional Plagiocephaly: The Role of Repositioning, Congress of Neurological Surgeons, 2016
- Effectiveness of Conservative Therapy and Helmet Therapy for Positional Cranial Deformation, PRS Journal, 2014